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War of 1812 Timeline: April 1814 - June 1814

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April 1814 - June 1814

April 1814             

The British commence construction of Fort Mississauga in Niagara, Upper Canada.

 After capturing the American Fort Niagara, the British built a new fort across the Niagara River on Mississauga Point.  These forts commanded the mouth of the river.    Fort Mississauga was a small star-shaped earthwork, surrounded by a dry ditch and a log palisade. Armed with four 24-pounder cannons and equipped with a hot shot furnace, it was stronger than the badly damaged Fort George.  Stone and brick rubble from the destroyed town of Niagara was used to begin construction of a central brick tower inside Fort Mississauga.  The first lighthouse built on the Great Lakes before the war on Mississauga Point, was also demolished.  The fort was deemed to be defensible by July, just as an invading American army once again crossed the Niagara River.

 

Major General James Wilkinson's army retreats to Plattsburg, New York.

 

HMS Linnet is launched at the naval yard of I le aux Noix, Lower Canada.

4 April 1814         

 

The French Emperor Napoleon abdicates, enabling the British to send more men and ships to North America. 

Vice-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane's assumption of command of the Royal Navy's North American station on 1 April 1814 coincided with a downturn in French fortunes in Europe, culminating with Napoleon's abdication. Thereafter, the British picked up the pace on all fronts in North America. With more ships available, Cochrane increased the pressure in the Chesapeake and extended the blockade northward to include New England. Because this stifled the licensed trade, it drew protests from Halifax merchants, whose New Brunswick counterparts were, however, saved by smuggling. Cochrane was deaf to the complaints, but no matter how many ships he had at his disposal, he found it impossible to achieve success in blockading what was now a significantly greater expanse of coast.

7 April 1814

Americans launch the brig USS Jefferson at Sackets Harbor, New York adding to Commodore Isaac Chauncey's Lake Ontario squadron.

9 April 1814         

The remaining 98 men and officers of the 2nd Battalion 8th (or King's) Regiment sail from New Brunswick for Quebec.

11 April 1814

The American ship Saratoga (26 guns) is launched at Vergennes, Vermont increasing Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough's Lake Champlain fleet.

13 April 1814

Americans launch the brig USS Jones at Sackets Harbor, New York adding to Commodore Isaac Chauncey's Lake Ontario squadron.

14 April 1814

HMS Prince Regent and HMS Princess Charlotte are launched at Kingston, Upper Canada. The two frigates help Commodore Sir James Lucas Yeo gain control of Lake Ontario for a period during the 1814 navigation season.

Needing more heavily armed vessels to challenge American Commodore Isaac Chauncey for ascendancy of Lake Ontario, Commodore Sir James Lucas Yeo's squadron was reinforced by HMS Prince Regent (56 guns) and HMS Princess Charlotte (42 guns).  In a successful amphibious attack on Oswego, New York, 6 May 1814, the vessels conveyed part of a 550 soldier force, covered their landing and then bombarded the fort.  Although competing interests sometimes strained army-navy relations, joint campaigns occurred throughout the war along the Atlantic coast and on inland waterways; and were utilized by both Britain and the United States. Other notable examples of naval cooperation along fresh water frontiers include the American victory at Fort George and the British action at Forty Mile Creek, both in 1813.

15 April 1814

Captain Arthur Sinclair receives orders to take charge of the American squadron upon Lake Erie replacing Master Commandant Jesse Elliott who is given command of a warship on Lake Ontario.

19 April 1814

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert McDouall and a contingent of British soldiers and sailors depart Glengarry Landing, Upper Canada, to reinforce Fort Mackinac, Michigan Territory.

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert McDouall, two companies of the Royal Newfoundland Fencible Regiment, a handful of Royal Artillerymen and a group of Royal Navy Sailors were ordered from Kingston in February 1814 to reinforce and resupply the British garrison at Fort Mackinac, Michigan Territory.  Travelling overland, they stopped at the forks of the Nottawasaga River in Upper Canada near Georgian Bay and spent two months constructing 29 large boats with which to ship supplies to the post on Michilimackinac Island.  The clearing made by the expedition became known as " Glengarry Landing." McDouall's contingent encountered ice-choked and often storm tossed waters on their journey over Lake Huron to Fort Mackinac. Upon arrival on 18 May McDouall assumed command of the post.

20 April 1814

HMS Orpheus and HMS Shelburne defeat USS Frolic in the Florida Straits.

22 April 1814

A camp of instruction is established by American Major General Jacob Brown at Flint Hill, near Buffalo, New York.

For 10 weeks in the spring of 1814, the Left Division of the U.S. Army trained under Brigadier General Winfield Scott at this camp.  Under Scott, the men drilled up to 10 hours each day and a strict discipline was enforced.  Officers and men were both punished for infractions, and four deserters were executed.  Scott paid scrupulous attention to cleanliness and camp sanitation, virtually eradicating the sickness that decimated the armies of this era.  While popular histories have described this as a basic training camp, in fact Scott trained the largely experienced and battle hardened troops under his command to the high standards of their opponents, the British Army.  Their performance in the battles of Chippawa and Lundy's Lane ensured their place in American history. 

25 April 1814

A plot to destroy the nearly-completed USS Superior on the stocks at Sackets Harbor is foiled when the party of three small British boats sent to accomplish this mission is discovered and chased away by American guard boats.

29 April 1814

USS Peacock takes HMS Epervier off of Cape Canaveral, Spanish Florida.

1 May 1814

Americans launch USS Superior (58 guns) at Sackets Harbor, New York. This vessel, along with USS Mohawk (42 Guns) launched in June, will help restore naval superiority on Lake Ontario to Commodore Isaac Chauncey in the summer of 1814.

6 May 1814           

A British amphibious force captures Oswego, New York.

Denied reinforcements by Governor General Sir George Prevost for a large-scale attack on Sackets Harbor, New York, Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Drummond and Commodore Sir James Lucas Yeo decided instead to capture Oswego, a less fortified but important transshipment port on Lake Ontario from which the U.S. Navy obtained supplies and ordnance.  The British used eight warships and three gunboats to bombard the village and Fort Ontario as well as cover the landing of troops.  The British suffered many casualties but were rewarded with a bounty of provisions, artillery and ammunition, as well as several vessels.  The victory put a temporary strain on supplies and delayed Commodore Isaac Chauncey's ship-building at Sackets Harbor but otherwise did not deal a decisive blow to the Americans on Lake Ontario.

12 May 1814         

The American schooner Ticonderoga (17 guns) is launched at Vergennes, Vermont to strengthen the Lake Champlain squadron.

14 May 1814         

Failed British attack on the American naval yard at Otter Creek (Vergennes, Vermont). The expedition left the naval base at I le aux Noix, Lower Canada on May 8.

14-16 May 1814

American forces under Colonel John Campbell raid and burn Port Dover, Charlottesville, Patterson's Creek and Long Point, Upper Canada.

23 May 1814         

The Ancaster "Bloody" Assize commences.  Upper Canadians accused of treason are put on trial at Ancaster, Upper Canada. 

By 1812 roughly one half of the inhabitants of Upper Canada were American born. Many openly supported the invading Americans and a few took up arms against the King forming a treasonous regiment, "The Canadian Volunteers," led by three former members of the Legislative Assembly.  Nineteen men from the London and Niagara districts were tried for treason at the Ancaster "Bloody" Assize.  Four were acquitted, and 15 men were sentenced to death.  Eight men were executed on 20 July 1814, at Burlington Heights, Upper Canada.  The men were hanged and then beheaded. Seven convicted traitors were reprieved, and of these three died in jail, three were banished and one escaped.  Thirty traitors serving with the Americans were also convicted and their property seized. 

25 May - 24 June 1814

Arrival of British reinforcements at Quebec City, Lower-Canada: 16th Regiment, Royal Artillery, 70th Regiment.

29 May 1814

During a skirmish at Pungoteague Creek, Virginia British forces destroy an American battery.

30 May 1814

A British force under the command of Captain Stephen Popham, consisting of two gunboats, three cutters and 160 seamen and marines is soundly defeated and captured in Sandy Creek, New York, having ventured inland in pursuit of American bateaux.

June 1814

Upon receiving news that Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin Territory fell to the Americans, the Mississippi Volunteers, a British unit formed primarily of voyageurs and fur trappers, is raised at Fort Mackinac to help recapture the lost post. 

1 June 1814

British raids on Cedar Point and St. Jerome's Point, Maryland.

2-5 June 1814

Americans take possession of Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin Territory and start construction of Fort Shelby.

3 June 1814

British Secretary for War, Earl of Bathurst, orders Governor General Sir George Prevost to take offensive action against the Americans with the reinforcement of 13,000 regulars that will soon arrive from Europe. Prevost will allocate the majority of these troops to the September 1814 campaign in northern New York near Plattsburg and Lake Champlain.

6 June 1814

The British Secretary for War, the Earl of Bathurst, orders Lieutenant Governor Sir John Coape Sherbrooke to occupy the part of the District of Maine, "which at present intercepts the communication between Halifax and Quebec."

The marches of the 104th Regiment and others had opened British eyes wide to the strategic significance of the Saint John River route as a conduit for reinforcements during winter. The invasion of eastern Maine to secure that route was seen as part of a major offensive that would include escalation of the Chesapeake campaign and the invasion of upper New York via Lake Champlain. The British captured Moose Island, Passamaquoddy Bay on 11 July, and in early September an army-navy contingent of 2,500 men took possession of the entire Maine coast between the Penobscot and St. Croix rivers. This guaranteed that troops who might have to march up the frozen Saint John River would not have to worry about meeting the enemy along the way.

8-10 June 1814

British raids up St. Leonard's Creek, Maryland.

11 June 1814

USS Mohawk (42 guns) launched on Lake Ontario. This vessel, along with USS Superior (58 guns) launched in May, helps restore naval superiority on Lake Ontario for Commodore Isaac Chauncey in the summer of 1814.

12-16 June 1814

British raids up the Patuxent River, Maryland.

Summer 1814       

The Americains construct fortifications at Plattsburg, New York capable of resisting land- or water-based attacks.

19 June 1814

Captain Arthur Sinclair and Lieutenant Colonel George Croghan begin a four-month expedition against the British in the upper Great Lakes.

United States Secretary of the Navy William Jones ordered a joint navy-army expedition to the Upper Great Lakes in early June 1814. The campaign had several objectives: the recapture of Fort Mackinac with an eye to disrupting British-First Nations and Métis relations, the capture of British Fort St. Joseph, the destruction of any British ship construction facilities and generally to secure command of the upper lakes. Captain Arthur Sinclair, commander of the U.S. squadron upon Lake Erie, set sail from Erie, Pennsylvania, on 19 June with seven vessels and contingents of soldiers from several regular regiments led by Lieutenant Colonel George Croghan.  After immense effort the squadron was hauled over the shallows of the St. Clair River and entered Lake Huron in mid-July.   

 

An American gunboat force commanded by Lieutenant Francis Gregory capture the British gunboat Black Snake on the St. Lawrence River near Kingston, Upper Canada. Gregory is forced to scuttle his prize when pursued by additional British gunboats from Kingston.

22 June 1814

HMS Leander defeats USS Rattlesnake off Sable Island, Nova Scotia.

24 June 1814

British marines destroy a battery at Chissinisack (Chesconessex), Virginia.

25 June - 24 July 1814

Arrival of British reinforcements at Quebec City, Lower Canada freed by the cessation of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe: 1st Battalion 82nd Regiment, 4th Battalion 1st Regiment of the Royal Scots, 1st Battalion 90th Regiment, 1st Battalion 6th Regiment, 97th Regiment, Nova Scotia Fencibles.

26 June 1814

Captain Joshua Barney's flotilla breaks through a British naval blockade on St. Leonard's Creek and moves into the Patuxent River, Maryland.

27 June 1814

A raiding force under American naval Lieutenant Francis Gregory burn a nearly completed schooner at Newcastle, Upper Canada.

28 June 1814

USS Wasp captures HMS Reindeer in the English Channel.

 

During a failed American raid on Odelltown, Lower Canada, Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Forsyth is shot and killed, his body returned to Champlain, New York for burial.

28 June &

7 July 1814

The Americans intercept contraband on Lake Champlain destined for the naval yard at Ile aux Noix, Lower Canada.

29 June 1814

Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Bouchette, Surveyor General of Lower Canada, gives land grants along the Grand Portage between Lake Témiscouata and the St. Lawrence River to disbanded soldiers of the 10th Royal Veterans Battalion, "for the purpose of facilitating the Communication between Lower Canada and New Brunswick."

June & July 1814

Arrival at Quebec City, Lower Canada of materials and pieces of frigates-in-frame for the naval establishment on the Great Lakes.

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War of 1812 Timeline


Section 1: 1775 - November 1811
Section 2: January 1812 - June 1812
Section 3: July 1812 - September 1812
Section 4: October 1812 - December 1812
Section 5: January 1813 - March 1813
Section 6: April 1813 - June 1813
Section 7: July 1813 - September 1813
Section 8: October 1813 - December 1813
Section 9: January 1814 - March 1814
Section 10: April 1814 - June 1814
Section 11: July 1814 - December 1814
Section 12: January 1815 - 1871

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