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Glossary of Terms



Archaeological Resource (ressource archéologique): ll tangible evidence of human activity that is of historical, cultural or scientific interest. Examples include features, structures, archaeological objects or remains at or from an archaeological site, or an object recorded as an isolated archaeological find.

Archaeological Site (site archéologique):A place or area where tangible evidence of human activity of historical, cultural or scientific interest is or was located on, above or below the ground, whether submerged or not. The identification, recovery and interpretation of this evidence can be carried out using archaeological research methods.

Archaeological Site/Remains (vestiges/site archéologiques): refers to physical evidence of past human activity of historical, cultural or scientific interest located below, on or above the ground or underwater.

Architrave (chambranle): mouldings around openings such as doors, windows and chimneys and certain other locations to conceal joints or for decorative purposes.

Area of Historic Place (description des limites): The extent of the historic place, as defined by the formal recognition, in square metres.

Ashlar (pierre de parement): stone that has been cut square and dressed.

Atrium (atrium): An interior courtyard that is open to the weather; or a significant interior space, often skylighted.

Attic (combles): The top floor of a building, often reduced in height and unfinished.

Awning (auvent): A moveable, fabric-covered, sloped surface that projects from a wall - usually over a door, window or storefront - to provide shelter from the weather. See also canopy and marquee.


Bakelite (bakélite): An insulating or facing material manufactured from synthetic resins and resembling opaque glass.

Balustrade (balustrade): A railing composed of posts (balusters) and a handrail. (This definition is better)
Balustrade (balustrade): A low rail supported by short posts. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Bargeboard (bordure de pignon): Boards or other decorative woodwork fixed to the edges or projecting rafters of a gabled roof, sometimes called gingerbread.

Batten (tasseau): A narrow vertical strip of wood, placed over joints of wider boards to protect the joints from the weather; the combination is called board-and-batten construction. See also siding.

Bay (baie): The vertical divisions in a façade created by the rhythm of the doors and windows.

Beam (poutre): A principal horizontal structural member; also see joist.

Bellcast roof (toit en larmier): A roof that flares out at the eaves.

Belvedere (belvédère): Raised turret or lantern.

Berm (talus): An embankment or ridge of earth, usually created to serve as a protective barrier.

Blind arcade (arcade aveugle): A row of arches applied to a wall as a decorative element.

Board and batten  (planche et tasseau): Wooden sheathing of wide vertical boards placed side by side with narrow strips of wood (called battens) covering the joints.

Bollard (bollard): A thick post used for securing ropes or to limit access to an area.

Bracket (console): A small projecting piece of stone or wood that supports a horizontal member such as the eaves.

Brise-soleil (brise-soleil): A screen, usually louvered, placed on the outside of a building to shield windows from direct sunlight.

Building (bâtiment): A construction with roof and walls used to shelter occupants and/ or contents.

Bull's eye window (oeil-de-boeuf): A round window; also called an oculus.

Bunker (casemate): Part of a fortification defence system built partly or entirely below ground.

Buttress (contrefort): An exterior masonry support built into or against a wall to counter the lateral thrusts of a roof.


Cadastral Reference (numéro de cadastre): Cross-reference to the land unit corresponding to the historic place.

Cairn (cairn): A mound of stones serving as a monument or marker.

Canadian Heritage River (rivière du patrimoine canadien): A river or section of a river which has been determined by the Canadian Heritage Rivers Board to have outstanding Canadian natural heritage, human heritage and/or recreational value.

Canadian Register of Historic Places (répertoire canadien des lieux patrimoniaux): The pan-Canadian list of historic places of local, provincial, territorial and national significance. The Canadian Register of Historic Places is administered by the Government of Canada, in collaboration with provincial and territorial governments.

Canadian Register of Historic Places Documentation Standards (normes de documentation du Répertoire canadien des lieux patrimoniaux): Required information for each nomination of a historic place to the Canadian Register of Historic Places. For more information, please contact the appropriate Federal, Provincial, or Territorial Registrar or consult the Canadian Register of Historic Places Documentation Standards Handbook.

Canadian Register of Historic Places Eligibility Criteria  (critères d'admissibilité au Répertoire canadien des lieux patrimoniaux): A place is eligible for listing on the Canadian Register of Historic Places if it meets the definition of "historic place" and if the Canadian Register Documentation Standards have been met

Canadian Registrar (registraire canadien): The Canadian Registrar is responsible for managing and maintaining the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Canopy (auvent fixe): A fixed horizontal, sloped or arched surface that projects from a wall - usually over a door - to provide shelter from the weather. See also awning and marquee.

Cantilever (cantilever): A horizontal projection balanced by the downward pressure of a vertical member on its pivotal point. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Capital (chapiteau): The decorative head of a column, pilaster, pier or other vertical support.

Cartographic Identifiers (identificateurs cartographiques): Identify the specific location of the historic place, and allows a historic place to be visually represented on a map of Canada on the CRHP system and the Historic Places web site.
Casement window  (fenêtre à battants): A window that is hinged along the vertical edge and opens by swinging either in or out.

Category of Property (catégorie de propriété): Classifies the current owner of the historic place according to type- private, public (federal), public (provincial), public (territorial), public (local), not-for-profit, first nations reserve, settlement lands, and aboriginal/ public lands.

Chamfer (chanfrein): A sloping or bevelled edge.

Chancel  (choeur): The part of a church to the liturgical east of the nave or crossing containing the altar; also known as the sanctuary.

Character-defining elements (éléments caractéristiques): The materials, forms, location, spatial configurations, uses and cultural associations or meanings that contribute to the heritage value of a historic place, and which must be retained in order to preserve its heritage value.

Cladding (recouvrement): The external, non-structural material that protects the structural wall or frame from the weather.

Clapboard (planche à gorge): Siding or cladding of bevelled boards laid horizontally and overlapping at the top and bottom, applied to the outside of a woodframed building to make it weatherproof; the face of each board is oblique to the wall (also called bevelled siding).

Clocher (clocher): Bell tower or a room near the top of a tower where the bells are hung

Collections (collection): Those movable resources that are located within a historic place and contribute to its significance.

Colonette (colonette): A small decorative column.(A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Colonnade (colonnade): A row of regularly spaced columns usually supporting an entablature and part of a roof.

Column (colonne): A tall, cylindrical support, traditionally decorated according to one of the ancient orders (see order).

Commemoration (commemoration): Ministerial recognition of the national significance of specific lands or waters by acquisition or by agreement, erection of a plaque or monument, or by another means deemed authority for purposes of protecting and presenting heritage places and resources,

Commemorative Integrity (Intégrité commémorative): A historic place (national historic site, heritage railway station, federal heritage building, etc.) may be said to possess commemorative integrity when the resources that symbolize or represent its importance are not impaired or under threat, when the reasons for its significance are effectively communicated to the public, and when the heritage value of the place is respected.

Commemorative Integrity Statement (énoncé d'intégrité commemorative): This document demonstrates the reason of designation of a national historical site by the Minister of Environment on the recommendation of the Historic Sites and Monument Board of Canada. It identifies the resources and his values, the objectives for management of the site and is the reference document for the planification, management, operation and development of reports and adoption of corrective measures.  (Stephanie)

Concrete (béton): A mixture of cement, aggregate (usually sand and gravel) and water that hardens and attains great compressive strength. When used structurally it is usually reinforced with embedded steel rods or mesh to give it tensile strength as well.

Conservation (conservation): All actions or processes that are aimed at safeguarding the character-defining elements of a cultural resource so as to retain its heritage value and extend its physical life. This may involve "Preservation," "Rehabilitation," "Restoration," or a combination of these actions or processes.

Console (console): An S-curve bracket.

Consolidant (consolidant): Repair material that penetrates and strengthens a deteriorated element.

Construction date (date de construction): The date of construction of the historic place (may be approximate).

Consultation (consultation): The term public consultation refers to the two-way process of providing and seeking information and advice from the general public, governments, Aboriginal peoples, interest groups and others on the management of protected heritage places. Consultation is only one of the many aspects of the overall public engagement. (Not in French version)

Contributing Resources (resources contributives): The major resources within the boundaries of the historic place that significantly contribute to its heritage value. These resources are classified as buildings, structures, remains, and landscapes or landscape features.


De-listing (retrait d'une inscription): A listed historic place may be de-listed from the Canadian Register if it no longer meets the eligibility criteria for listing. For more information, please contact the appropriate Federal, Provincial, or Territorial Registrar.

Dentil (denticule):  a small block, usually part of a series of such blocks, in the entablature of the classical orders (see order). (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Description of Boundaries (description des limites): Description of the physical limits of the historic place, as defined by the formal recognition.

Description of Historic Place (description du lieu patrimonial): Briefly describes the historic place and identifies to what the designation or formal recognition applies.

Designation (désignation) : Acte qui survient quand le Ministère approuve une recommendation des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada ou du Comité des edifices fédéraux du patrimoine (CÉFP). (Not in French version)

Doric (dorique): see order.

Dormer (lucarne): A window that projects from a sloping roof, with a small roof of its own.

Double hung (window) (fenêtre à guillotine): A window with vertically sliding double sections.

Dressed (taillé): A stone cut square on all sides and smoothed on the face.


Earthworks (remblai): In military architecture, a defensive structure constructed of earth.

Eave (débord de toit): The projecting edge of a roof.

Ecosystem (écosystème): The system formed by the interaction of all the living things of a particular environment with one another and with their habitat.

Façade (Elevation) (façade principale, façade, élévation): The face of a building; an architectural drawing of the vertical projection of the face of a building.

Entablature (entablement): The horizontal component, usually decorated, that lies directly above a column or other support; in Classical architecture, the entablature is composed of an architrave, a frieze and a cornice. (This definition is better)

Fascia (bordure de toit): A finish element covering the face of eaves and roof projections.

Federal Heritage Building (édifice fédéral du patrimoine): Any federally owned building that has been designated by the Minister of Canadian Heritage enviroment under the Federal Heritage Buildings Policy.

Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office (bureau d'examen des édifices fédéraux du patrimoine): An interdepartmental advisory body responsible for identifying which federal buildings merit designation as federal heritage buildings, and for monitoring the conservation and continued use of these buildings.

Federal, Provincial or Territorial Unique Identifier (identificateur unique federal/provincial/territorial): An alpha-numeric reference code assigned to a historic place by a federal, provincial, or territorial jurisdiction.

Federal/Provincial/Territorial Registrar (Registraire fédéral, provincial ou territorial): The Federal, Provincial or Territorial Registrar under whose mandate the historic place falls, and who is responsible for nominating the historic place to the Canadian Register of Historic Places. For more information about the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Registrars, see the Roles and Responsibilities section.

Fenestration (fenêtrage): The arrangement of windows on a building.

Finial (fleuron): an ornamental projection at the top of a gable, roof or other high component.

Formal Recognition Authority (autorité de reconnaissance officielle): The name of the local, provincial, territorial or federal authority that recognized the historic place.

Formal Recognition Date (date de reconnaissance officielle): The date on which the formal recognition of the historic place was approved or took effect.

Formal Recognition Statute (autorité de reconnaissance): The legislation, policy or by-law under which the historic place is formally recognized.

Formal Recognition Type (type de reconnaissance officielle): The type of formal recognition as defined in the legislation, policy or by-law that applies to the historic place.
Formal Recognition (reconnaissance officielle): The designation or other recognition by or under federal, provincial or territorial law or a municipal by-law or ordinance.

Frame (charpente): The structural skeleton of a building.

Function- Category (current)  (fonction - catégorie (actualle)): The broad category that applies to the current function of the historic place.

Function - Category (historic) (fonction - catégorie (historique)): The broad category that applies to the historic function of the historic place.

Function- Type (current) (fonction - type (actuel)): The specific current function of the historic place.

Function - Type (historic) (fonction - type (historique)): The specific historic function of the historic place.


Gable (pignon): The triangular portion of a wall beneath the end of a gabled roof.

Gabled roof (toit à pignon): A roof that slopes on two sides.

Gambrel roof  (toit à comble brisé): A ridged roof with two slopes on each side.

Glacis (glacis): A slope extending down from a fortification.

Guidelines (lignes directrices): Statements that provide practical guidance in applying the Standards for the conservation of historic places. They are presented here in a format that provides recommended and non-recommend actions.


Heritage Area (aire du patrimoine): A generic term used to signify those geographical areas which are included within the Parks Canada Program. These include National Parks, National Marine Conservation Areas, National Historic Sites and Historic Canals.

Heritage Railway Station (gare ferroviaire patrimoniale): A railway Station that has been designated as a ''Heritage Railway Station'' by the line departement of Parks Canada on the recommandation of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada and the Heritage Railway Stations Protection Act.  The law is applicable only to the railway stations that belong to the Canadian railway station.

Heritage Resources (ressource patrimoniale): A Heritage Area or any natural or cultural features associated with heritage areas or potential Areas.

Heritage Tourism (tourisme patrimonial): An immersion in the natural history, human heritage, the arts and philosophy, and the institutions of a region or country; the purpose of this activity is to create understanding, awareness and support for the nation's heritage.

Heritage value (valeur patrimoniale): The aesthetic, historic, scientific, cultural, social or spiritual importance or significance for past, present or future generations. The heritage value of a historic place is embodied in its character-defining materials, forms, location, spatial configurations, uses and cultural associations or meanings.

Hinged window (fenêtre à charnière): A sash which swings in or out and is hinged at the top or bottom.

Hipped roof (toit en croupe): roof with four pitched sides.

Historic Canal (canal historique): An administrative term referring to those canals operated by Parks Canada for purposes of navigation as well as for protection, enjoyment and interpretation of their cultural and natural heritage values. Many of these operating canals have been designated as national historic sites under the authority of the Historic Sites and Monuments Act, and are managed in accordance with the "administration, preservation and maintenance" clause of that Act.

Historic Museum (musée historique): A museum established under the authority of section 3(c) of the Historic Sites and Monuments Act to commemorate a historic place.

Historic Place (lieu patrimonial): A structure, building, group of buildings, district, landscape, archaeological site or other place in Canada that has been formally recognized for its heritage value by an appropriate authority within a jurisdiction.

Historic Place Record (enregistrement d'un lieu patrimonial): The electronic record containing information relating to a historic place listed on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Historic place (lieu patrimonial): A structure, building, group of buildings, district, landscape, archaeological site or other place in Canada that has been formally recognized for its heritage value.

Historic Value (valeur historique): A value assigned by Parks Canada to a resource, whereby it is recognized as a cultural resource.  All resources have historical value; only those which are considered to have importance over and above the historical, have historic value.

Historical (historique): Of, relating to, or of the nature of, history, as opposed to fiction. "Historical" refers more broadly to what is concerned with history, whereas the term "historic" refers to having importance in, or influence on, history.

Hood moulding (Drip moulding) (larmier): A moulding that projects above a window or door to throw off rainwater. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)


In kind (à l'identique): With the same form, material and detailing as the existing element.

In situ (sur place): This term means 'in place' and as used in this document, it refers to the action of protecting, maintaining and/or stabilizing the existing materials of an archaeological site in the location where they were found. It is the main recommended action associated with minimal intervention.

Indigenous Species (espèces indigènes): Organisms that occur naturally in a particular area instead of being introduced, directly or indirectly, by human activity.

Inspecting (inspecter): Carrying out a survey or review of the condition of an historic place and its elements to determine if they are functioning properly; to identify signs of weakness, deterioration or hazardous conditions; and to identify necessary repairs.  Inspections should be carried out on a regular basis as part of a maintenance plan. 

Interpretation (interprétation): An educational activity whose objective is to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of artifacts, illustrative media and first-hand experiences rather than by simply communicating factual information. 

Interpretive Construct (éléments interprétatifs): Construction designed to support or present the interpretation of an archaeological site and its character-defining elements, and to help communicate its heritage value. Examples of interpretive constructs include plaques and panels.

Intervention (intervention): Any action, other than demolition or destruction, that results in a physical change to an element of a historic place.

Intumescent paint (peinture intumescente): A type of paint that when heated swells to form a fire-protective coating.

Inukshuk (inukshuk): An Inuit stone cairn having the rough outline of a human figure.

Ionic (ionique): see order.


Joist (solive): A secondary horizontal structural member, usually supported by a beam at each end, and itself supporting a floor, ceiling, or roof.

Jurisdiction (jurisdiction): The federal, provincial, or territorial jurisdiction under whose mandate the historic place falls.


Keystone (clé de voûte): The central stone at the apex of an arch of vault. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)


Lancet (lancet): Gothic narrow pointed window, used mainly in churches.

Landscape(s) or Landscape Feature(s) (paysage(s) ou élément(s) paysager(s)): A human-made or naturally occurring element/site that is not a building or structure but can be identified within a historic place.

Lantern (lanternon): A windowed superstructure at the top of a roof or dome; a small cupola.

Lintel (linteau): A horizontal beam above a window or door that takes the weight of the wall above the opening.

List (inscription): If the Canadian Register Documentation Standards have been met for a historic place nomination, the Canadian Registrar lists the historic place record on the Canadian Register.

Location of Supporting Documentation (emplacement de la documentation): The institution and office holding the supporting documents related to the formal recognition of the historic place.

Location (emplacement): Information that assists in locating a historic place on a street map or a map of Canada.

Longhouse (longue maison): A long structure built of bent poles forming a tunnel shape, capable of housing several families.


Maintenance (entretien): Routine, cyclical, non-destructive actions necessary to slow the deterioration of an historic place. It entails periodic inspection; routine, cyclical, non-destructive cleaning; minor repair and refinishing operations; replacement of damaged or deteriorated materials that are impractical to save.

Management Plan (plan de gestion): A document that constitutes the local expression of the general policies of the department and approved by the Minister following extensive public participation. This plan directs the long-term development and operation of a park, national historic site or canal. It constitutes a framework within which subsequent management, implementation and detailed planning will take place.

Mandatory Documentation (documentation obligatoire): Mandatory documentation must be provided in order for a place to be officially listed on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Mansard roof (toit en mansarde): A roof that has a double slope, with the lower part steeper than the upper one; also called a gambrel roof, especially for barns.

Marquee (marquise): A fixed horizontal structure that projects from a wall - usually over a theatre's entrance - to provide shelter from the weather. See also awning and canopy.

Masonry (maçonnerie): Stone, brick, concrete, tile, or any other earthen products used in construction.

Minimal intervention (intervention minimale): The approach that allows functional goals to be met with the least physical intervention.

Mock-up (maquette): A full-sized model of a structure or intervention used for demonstration, study or testing.

Monitoring (surveillance): The systematic and regular inspection or measurement of the condition of the materials and elements of an historic place to determine their behavior, performance, and rate of deterioration over time.

Mothballing (mise sous cocon): To temporarily close up a building or other structure to protect it from the weather as well as to secure it from vandalism.

Moulding (moulure): A shaped decorative element, usually a horizontal band, that projects slightly from the surface of a wall.

Mullion (meneau): A thin upright member within a window or between adjacent windows.

Name of Historic Place (nom du lieu historique): A single, common name in current usage that serves as an identifier for a historic place.

National Historic Site (lieu historique national): Any place declared to be of national historic interest or significance by the Minister responsible for Parks Canada.

National Marine Conservation Areas (aire marine nationale de conservation): A designated marine area set aside in accordance with the National Marine Conservation Area Policy.

National Park (parc national): A natural area of land or sea, designated to (a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations; (b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area; and (c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible. (Source: "Guidelines for Protected Areas Management Categories" - IUCN - The World Conservation Union [1994]). In Canada, the word also means a national park as described in Schedule 1 of the National Parks Act. It is an area which has been identified as a natural area of Canadian significance, which has been acquired by Canada and designated by Parliament as a national park, and over which Parks Canada has been given administration and control under the authority of the National Parks Act. It is managed for the benefit, education and enjoyment of Canadians so as to leave it unimpaired for future generations.

Natural Areas of Canadian Significance (NACS) (aire naturelle représentative d'intérêt canadien): A natural area which provides outstanding representation of the geology, physiography, vegetation and wildlife that is characteristic of its larger natural region. A potential national park is selected from among NACS within a natural region not represented in the system of national parks.

Niche (niche): A concave recess in a wall, often intended to contain sculpture. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Non-destructive testing (essai non-destructif): Testing that does not result in the permanent deformation or damage of the element being tested.


Oculus (oculus): A round or oval opening in a wall or at the apex of a dome;  sometimes louvred or glazed; also called a roundel or bull's eye window.(A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Ogee (doucine): An arch created from a double curve, convex above and concave below.

Optional Documentation (documentation facultative): Optional documentation is not required but may be included wherever appropriate, in order to increase the usefulness and the functionality of the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Order (ordre): An arrangement of columns and entablature in classical architecture. Specific styles of columns and detailing are divided into five main categories: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (the Greek orders), Tuscan, and Composite (the Roman orders).

Oriel Window (fenêtre en encorbellement ou oriel): A bay window projecting from an upper storey.

Owner Notification and Response (avis au propriétaire et réponse du propriétaire): Indicates whether an individual owner has given his/her consent to collect, use and disclose personal information for the purposes of Canadian Register.


Palladian window (fenêtre palladienne): A three-part window consisting of a tall centre window, usually round-headed, flanked by two shorter, narrower windows.

Parapet (parapet): In a building, a portion of a wall that projects above a roof; in a fortification, a low wall or mound, usually of stone or earth, created to protect soldiers.

Past performance (rendement antérieur): The demonstration of a structure's ability to satisfactorily resist loads based on its history.  Buildings and structures built in accordance with good building practices, prior to the development of building codes, may be considered to have proven their capacity to resist loads based on the fact that they have already been subjected to, and successfully resisted, these loads in the past.

Patching (ragréage): The action of making defects disappear from a wood, stone or concrete surface.

Pavilion (pavilion): A subsection of a larger building, usually projecting, sometimes distinguished by a different roof shape or surface treatment, usually at the centre or ends of a building.

Pediment (fronton): The triangular end of a gable, or a triangular ornamental element resembling it, defined by a moulding (or series of mouldings) along its three edges.

Pergola (pergola): An arbor or a passageway of columns supporting a roof of trelliswork on which climbing plants are trained to grow.

Petroglyph (pétroglyphe): A figure inscribed onto a rock surface by grinding, chiping or incising.

Pictograph (pictogramme): Symbolic pictorial representation of a concept, object, activity, place or event.

Piecing in (rattachage): To repair or add to by inserting a piece. (This definition is more concise)

Pier (pilier): A vertical stone or brick support, usually square or rectangular.

Pilaster (pilastre): A pillar or pier attached to a wall, usually in one of the classical orders.

Plinth (socle): The base of a column, pilaster, door frame, or wall resembling a platform.

Portico (portique): A covered porch or walkway supported by columns.

Post (Poteau): A generic word for any upright support: a pier is a post of square or rectangular section, usually of masonry; a column is a post of circular section; a steel or iron member used vertically is also called a column; a pilaster is a shallow rectangular upright support set into a wall and used mainly as decoration.

Preservation (préservation): The action or process of protecting, maintaining and/or stabilizing the existing materials, form and integrity of a historic place, or of an individual component, while protecting its heritage value.

Protected Heritage Areas (aire patrimoniale protégée): Protected heritage areas are: a) areas that have been accorded "protected" status, because of their natural or cultural qualities, through acquisition or application of land-use controls;  b) areas that have been recognized as having natural or cultural heritage value and which require some form of protected status in order to ensure their long-term protection.  In the former case, management practices flow from the protected status; in the latter, management focuses on the need to devise an appropriate form of protection status. "Protected Heritage Areas" include, but are not limited to, all the program elements and activities set out in this Policy.

Province/Territory (province/territoire): Identifies the province or territory where a historic place is located.


Quoin (pierre d'angle): A protruding stone or brick that accentuates an exterior corner. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)


Rafter (chevron): In timber roof construction, a principal sloping component that runs from the top of the wall to the ridge.

Rampart (rempart): A wide bank of earth, usually with a parapet on top, built around a fort to help defend it.

Rehabilitation (réhabilitation): The action or process of making possible a continuing or compatible contemporary use for a historic place, or of an individual component, through repair, alterations and/or additions, while protecting its heritage value.

Reinforced concrete (béton armé): Concrete strengthened by the addition of a least 0.2 per cent structural steel.

Related Listing (inscription associée): Some historic places are recognized by more than one authority and/or more than one jurisdiction. Related listing(s) identifies the other listing or listings within the Canadian Register of Historic Places associated with a historic place.

Repointing (rejointoiement): To repair masonry joints with mortar.

Restoration (restauration): The action or process of accurately revealing, recovering or representing the state of a historic place, or of an individual component, as it appeared at a particular period in its history, while protecting its heritage value.

Ridge (faîte): The uppermost part of a roof, usually horizontal; or the structural component at the top of a roof.

Rock Art (Rupestral Art) (art rupestre): A general term for figures or designs painted or engraved on rock or formed through the placement of boulders. Rock art thus includes petroforms, petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs.

Rose window (rose): A large circular window with radiating tracery or glazing bars; often filled with stained glass. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Rosette (rosace): A round motif applied to a wall, or as a centre ceiling decoration, usually decorated with floral or leaf motifs.

Rusticated stone (pierre rustiquée): Cut stone having a strongly emphasized recessed edges or joints creating shadows.


Sash (châssis): In a window, the wood or metal frame that holds the glass.

Service Plan (plan de services): A document that translates the conceptual direction of the Management Plan into a detailed offer of service to the public, with an implementation strategy.

Shed roof (toit en appentis): A roof with only one slope; also used to describe the roof of a dormer window if it has only one slope.

Shiplap (planche à feuillure): A siding or cladding of horizontally laid boards with notched edges that make an overlapping joint, applied to the outside of a wood-framed building, or a stone wall, to make it weatherproof; the face of each board is parallel to the plane of the wall (also called drop siding).

Sidelight (fenêtre latérale): A window beside a door, forming part of the door unit often in flanking pairs.

Siding (bardage): A facing material, or cladding, applied to the outside of a wood-framed building to make it weatherproof, sometimes called weatherboarding: shiplap (or drop siding) consists of horizontally laid boards with notched edges that make an overlapping joint; the face of each board is parallel to the plane of the wall; clapboard (or bevelled siding) consists of bevelled boards laid horizontally and overlapping at the top and bottom; the face of each board is oblique to the wall; board-and-batten siding is composed of vertically applied boards whose joints are covered by narrow strips (battens); shingles may also be used as a siding, as may composite materials such as asphalt, asbestos or synthetic materials, often imitating brick or shingle; metal and vinyl siding are also used.

Significant Date (date(s) importante(s)): Date other than the construction date, associated with the heritage value of the historic place. 

Sill (seuil): The horizontal piece at the bottom of a window frame; the bottom of the door frame resting on the foundation.

Single or double hung window (sash window) (Fenêtre à guillotine (à guillotine simple): A sash which moves vertically along a tongue or track)

Soffit (soffite): The underside of an eave, beam, or other component.

Spalled (effrité): Breaking up of a masonry surface into chips or fragments.

Spandrel (tympan): the portion of a wall between the top of one window and the window sill above it; or the roughly triangular surface between two adjacent arches.

Splicing (épissage): The action of joining an existing element with a new element in order to compensate for the weakness of a damaged edge. The splicing of structural members for reinforcement is a typical example.

Standards and Guidelines for the conservation of Historic Places in Canada (Normes et lignes directrices pour la conservation des lieux patrimoniaux du Canada): The Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada is the first-ever pan-Canadian benchmark for heritage conservation practice in this country. It offers results-oriented guidance for sound decision making when a planning for, intervening in and using historic places. (Termium)

Standards (normes): Norms for the respectful conservation of historic places.

Statement of Significance (SOS) (énoncé d'importance): A statement that identifies the description, heritage value, and character-defining elements of an historic place. A Statement of Significance is required in order for an historic place to be listed on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.

Status (état): Indicates the current status of a historic place on the Canadian Register of Historic Places, i.e.: Listed, or de-listed.

Stratigraphy (stratigraphie): The composition and arrangement of geographic strata or layers of earth in a particular area.

Steel Frame Construction (construction à ossature en acier): A building system in which steel members such as girders and beams support the weight of the building.

Street and Street Number (rue et numéro): The street and street number of the historic place.

Stressors (facteurs de stress): Elements or events that could potentially disturb or put pressure on the archaeological site's character-defining elements and/or heritage value.

Stringcourse (bandeau ou assise de ceinture): A protruding band that runs horizontally along the façade of a building, usually between storeys.

Structure (structure): A human-made construction that is not a building.

Stud (poteau): In timber construction, one of a series of vertical supports.

Sustainability (durabilité): A group of objectives (economic, social and environmental) that must be coordinated and addressed to ensure the long term viability of communities and the planet.

Sustainable tourism (tourisme durable): A form of tourism which aims at using resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs are fulfilled while cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems are maintained.


Terra cotta (terre cuite): Fired clay commonly shaped in a mould and frequently glazed after firing.

Terrace (terrasse): A flat level of land, often a component of a series of step-like flat levels on a slope.

Terrazzo (terrazzo): Flooring manufactured from marble chips irregularly set in cement and highly polished. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Theme - Category (thème- catégorie): Identifies broad thematic category related to the heritage value of the historic place.

Theme - Type (thème- type): Identifies the specific thematic type that best applies to a historic place.

Thermal bridge (pont thermique): An element made of a material that is a poor heat insulator and that is placed in an assembly (between other materials, or between interior and exterior)

Tourelle (tourelle): a turret or small round tower projecting from the upper corner of a wall. (Not in French version)

Trefoil (trilobe): A three-lobed cloverleaf pattern. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)

Truss (ferme): A structural framework, made of either timber or metal, that is composed of individual members fastened together in a triangular arrangement.




Vault (voûte): A covering over an arched area.

Vernacular (vernaculaire): Indigenous, made locally by inhabitants; made using local materials and traditional methods of construction and ornament; specific to a region or location.

Voussoirs (voussoirs): Wedge-shaped stones or bricks set in an arch, often over a window or doorway.


Widow's walk (promenade des veuves ou plate-forme d'observation): A railed platform atop a roof, typically on a coastal house, that was used to look out for returning ships.

Windbreak (brise-vent): A row of tress or bushes planted to provide protection from the wind and, often, to prevent soil erosion.

World Heritage Site (site du patrimoine mondial): A cultural or natural site that is designated as having outstanding universal value by the World Heritage Committee, according to its criteria. The committee was established to oversee implementation of UNESCO's l972 World Heritage Convention.









Bray, Rosmary, Steve Dale, Wayne Grainger, R. Harrold. Canadian Inventory of Historic Buildings: Exterior Recording Training Manual. Ottawa: Environment Canada. 1979. 

Hucker, Jacqueline, Shannon Ricketts and Leslie Maitland, A Guide to Canadian Architectural Styles, 2nd ed. Peterborough, Broadview Press, 2004.

Kalman, Hal. A History of Canadian Architecture. Toronto: Oxford University Press Canada 1994.

Lefebvre, Marcel. Dictionnaire du bâtiment. Building terms dictionary, 2e ed. Montréal, Édition Leméac, 1971.

Parks Canada. Archeological glossary: http://www.pc.gc.ca/fra/progs/arch/page2/doc2.aspx

Parks Canada. Guiding Principles and Operational Policies:

Pinard, Guy. Montréal, son histoire et son architecture, Tome 2. Ottawa, Les Éditions La Presse, 1986.


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