Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill National Historic Site of Canada
Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill
Vieille pulperie de Chicoutimi
Vieille pulperie de Chicoutimi
Links and documents
1898/01/01 to 1923/01/01
Listed on the Canadian Register:
Statement of Significance
Description of Historic Place
Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill National Historic Site of Canada is located in a partially wooded valley on the Chicoutimi River in Quebec. It is a typical early 20th century industrial complex, comprising five buildings constructed between 1898 and 1923. The spacious buildings are of stone masonry with a steel roof and are well lit by many windows. The official recognition refers to the legal boundaries of the municipal property at the time of designation, including the four mills and the electrical substation.
The Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1983 for the following reasons:
- the Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill was the major establishment of the Chicoutimi Pulp Company, the largest producer of mechanical wood pulp in Canada around 1910;
- the site is composed of an exceptionally intact complex of industrial buildings, typical of the beginning of the 20th century.
Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill was established in 1896 by then mayor of Chicoutimi, Joseph-Dominique Guay and some partners, including Julien-Édouard-Alfred Dubuc, who became president of the Chicoutimi Pulp Company. The mill produced pulp for newsprint at a time when newspapers played a key role in the Canadian economy. Recognized for the quality of its output, the mill was the Chicoutimi Pulp Company’s main facility and the biggest producer of mechanical pulp in Canada around 1910.
The Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill is typical of the industrial complexes that operated in Quebec from the 1880s until the turn of the century. Its typical features include the stone masonry of the large buildings and the many windows that light the space; all timber processing operations were carried out under one roof, which was a common trait for pulp mills in that period. Many of the buildings that were part of the pulp mill are still standing, even though the mill closed in 1930, and are in exceptionally good condition.
Sources: Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Minutes, June 1983, December 2008.
Key elements contributing to the heritage value of the site include:
- its location near the city of Chicoutimi, in Quebec;
- its industrial setting in a partially wooded valley on the Chicoutimi River;
- the industrial architectural character of the complex, expressed in the large stone masonry buildings with many windows and the spatial relationships between the buildings;
- Mill 1, constructed in 1898, which has a two-sided metal mansard roof;
- Mill 2, constructed in 1903, which features arched openings, an imposing Neo-Queen Anne pediment with curved edges, two pierced-arch openings in the bottom portion of the west wall, and interior elements that bear witness to its original function;
- Mill 3, constructed in 1912, the foundation of which rests on two intersecting arms of the Chicoutimi River;
- Mill 4, constructed in 1921, which was used for repairs and storage and features a Neo- Queen Anne pediment, arched windows, original interior elements, including the mezzanines and overhead cranes, and the intermediate roof supports;
- the electrical substation, constructed in 1912–1913 and expanded in 1923, which features a flat roof, cut stone construction, interior walls made of brick with a thin coat of cement, and remnants of the original interior layout that reflect the original function of the site.
Government of Canada
Historic Sites and Monuments Act
National Historic Site of Canada
1896/01/01 to 1930/01/01
Theme - Category and Type
- Developing Economies
- Extraction and Production
- Expressing Intellectual and Cultural Life
- Architecture and Design
Function - Category and Type
- Historic or Interpretive Site
- Wood and/or Paper Manufacturing Facility
Architect / Designer
Location of Supporting Documentation
National Historic Sites Directorate, Documentation Centre, 5th Floor, Room 89, 25 Eddy Street, Gatineau, Quebec
Cross-Reference to Collection