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Fredericton Military Compound National Historic Site of Canada

11 Carleton Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Formally Recognized: 1960/05/30

View of Guard House on Compound site; Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
View of Guard House
View of the Soldiers' Stone Barracks on the compound site; Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
View of the Soldiers' Stone Barracks
Photo of plaque commemorating site; Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
Photo of plaque

Other Name(s)

Fredericton Military Compound National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton Military Compound
Complexe militaire de Frédéricton
Old Officers Square Barracks
Ancienne caserne des officiers
Soldiers' Stone Barracks, Officers' Quarters, Militia Arms Store, Guard House
Caserne en pierre, Logements des Officiers, Dépôt d'Armes et Corps de Garde

Links and documents

Construction Date(s)

1826/01/01 to 1882/01/01

Listed on the Canadian Register: 2012/07/27

Statement of Significance

Description of Historic Place

Fredericton Military Compound National Historic Site of Canada is a military complex of four early 19th century buildings located in the Historic Garrison District of downtown Fredericton, New Brunswick. This military compound sits next to the majestic St John’s River. The complex includes the Soldiers’ Barracks, the Guard House, the Officers’ Quarters, and the Militia Arms Store. To the east of the Officers Barracks is an open, green space known as Officers Square that is approximately 70 by 90 metres. Additional buildings on the site were built in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Official recognition refers to a polygon bordered by Queen, Regent, and York streets in Fredericton.

Heritage Value

Fredericton Military Compound was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1960 because:
- the compound, which housed the British garrison at Fredericton from 1784 until 1869, was an
important military establishment that contributed to the early character and development of New
Brunswick; and,
- the surviving military buildings are representative of early 19th century British military
architecture.

The Fredericton Military Compound was established in 1784 as a British military garrison and at one point included over fifty buildings. Many of these buildings were destroyed in a fire in 1825 and extant military buildings were constructed afterwards. The British garrison occupied the Fredericton Military Compound until 1869 when the new Dominion of Canada assumed responsibility for defence. Only four buildings remain from the original British garrison: the Soldier’s Barracks (1826), the Guard House (1828), the Officer’s Barracks (1839, 1851) and the Militia Arms Store (1832). These buildings are representative of early 19th century British military architecture.

Character-Defining Elements

Key elements that contribute to the heritage character of the site include: - its location in downtown Fredericton, New Brunswick; - its strategic location on the south side of the St John River maintaining traditional riverfront access; - its distinctive institutional character in contrast to the commercial buildings on the opposite side of Queen Street south of the site; - its late 19th century cast iron fence enclosing the site; - the surviving early 19th century buildings which illustrate the historical function of the site; - its open spaces including trees and park amenities; - the integrity of any unidentified archaeological remains which may be found within the site in their original placement and extent.

Key elements that contribute to the heritage character of the Soldiers’ Barracks include: - its rectangular stone two and a half storey massing; - its gable roof and multiple dormers.

Key elements that contribute to the heritage character of the Guard House include: - its rectangular stone single storey massing, quality stonework and quoins; - its hipped roof; - its pillared walkway.

Key elements that contribute to the heritage character of the Officers’ Quarters include: - its rectangular stone three storey massing; - its gable roof; - the Roman arch arcade at ground level; - the open veranda on the second floor.

Key elements that contribute to the heritage character of the Old Militia Arms Store include: - its rectangular wooden two storey massing; - its steep roof, balanced facade and inset chimneys that speak to the Georgian style.

Recognition

Jurisdiction

Federal

Recognition Authority

Government of Canada

Recognition Statute

Historic Sites and Monuments Act

Recognition Type

National Historic Site of Canada

Recognition Date

1960/05/30

Historical Information

Significant Date(s)

1825/01/01 to 1825/01/01
1869/01/01 to 1869/01/01

Theme - Category and Type

Function - Category and Type

Current

Leisure
Library
Leisure
Museum

Historic

Defence
Military Defence Installation

Architect / Designer

n/a

Builder

n/a

Additional Information

Location of Supporting Documentation

National Historic Sites Directorate, Documentation Centre, 5th Floor, Room 89, 25 Eddy Street, Gatineau, Quebec

Cross-Reference to Collection

Fed/Prov/Terr Identifier

170

Status

Published

Related Places

n/a

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