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Connaught Barracks, Building 1

Québec, Quebec, Canada

Formally Recognized: 1994/07/28

View of Building 1, showing the two-storey massing with a sheet copper shed roof, 1993.; Agence Parcs Canada / Parks Canada Agency, 1993.
Side view
View of the Connaught Barracks, showing the design and form, which complement the location in Québec's old defence system, 1977.; Agence Parcs Canada / Parks Canada Agency, 1977.
Aerial view
View of Building 1, showing the ground floor’s solid masonry construction and the stucco finish of the upper storey, 1993.; Agence Parcs Canada / Parks Canada Agency, 1993.
North elevation

Other Name(s)


Links and documents

Construction Date(s)

1808/01/01 to 1814/01/01

Listed on the Canadian Register: 2008/10/27

Statement of Significance

Description of Historic Place

Building 1, part of the Connaught Barracks, stands within the walls of the Saint Louis Bastion in Québec’s old defence system, an important part of the military landscape of upper town. It is composed of three rectangular two-storey wings set at different heights due to the slope of the site. The solid masonry walls of the original portion clearly convey the building’s defensive function. The shed roof is clad in copper, and the rear elevations are almost entirely below ground level. The designation is confined to the footprint of the building.

Heritage Value

Building 1 is a Recognized Federal Heritage Building because of its historical associations and its architectural and environmental values.

Historical Value
Building 1 is a very good building associated with the defence of the City of Québec in the colonial defence system under the British Regime. At the turn of the 19th century, a deteriorating political and military situation led authorities to increase the number of personnel in the City of Québec. Construction of the barracks met a pressing need for adequate housing of troops. The barracks were subsequently used for a variety of purposes including a military prison, artillery magazine, depot and later as offices. The Connaught Barracks are also part of the historic district of Old Québec, which was created in 1963 and later declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.

Architectural Value
Valued for its good aesthetics, Building 1 is constructed on the principals of English military classicism. Its solid masonry walls are clearly defensive while its functional qualities are demonstrated through its adaptability. The construction work exhibits good craftsmanship.

Environmental Value
Building 1 reinforces the historic character of its site near the citadel of Québec, and together with the associated adjacent buildings is a well-known local landmark.

Sources: Rhona Goodspeed, Reports 88-161, 90-312, 90-313, 90-314, 90-315, Buildings, Citadel, Québec, Québec, Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office Report 88-161; Connaught Barracks (Building 1), Cote de la Citadelle, City of Québec, Québec, Heritage Character Statement 88-162.

Character-Defining Elements

The character-defining elements of Building 1 should be respected.

Its good aesthetics, functional design and quality materials, for example:
- the two-storey massing with a sheet copper shed roof;
- the ground floor’s solid masonry construction and the stucco finish of the upper storey;
- the restrained decoration that includes the textured stone on the lower floor, the multi-pane windows, and the pediment awnings over the entrance.

The manner in which the Building 1 and adjacent buildings are compatible with the historic character of the fortress setting, and is a familiar regional landmark, as evidenced by:
- the design and form, which complement the location in Québec‘s old defence system;
- the structure’s high visibility due to its close location to the Saint-Louis Gate, the Garrison Club and the entrance to the hill leading to the Citadel.




Recognition Authority

Government of Canada

Recognition Statute

Treasury Board Heritage Buildings Policy

Recognition Type

Recognized Federal Heritage Building

Recognition Date


Historical Information

Significant Date(s)


Theme - Category and Type

Function - Category and Type



Military Support

Architect / Designer

British Royal Engineers



Additional Information

Location of Supporting Documentation

National Historic Sites Directorate, Documentation Centre, 5th Floor, Room 89, 25 Eddy Street, Gatineau, Quebec

Cross-Reference to Collection

Fed/Prov/Terr Identifier




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Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada

The Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada comprises a number of sites associated with the city of Québec’s historic defence systems. Its components are located…


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