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Listed on the Canadian Register:
Statement of Significance
Description of Historic Place
The Macklem House is a two-and-a-half storey Beaux Arts/Shingle style residence with a large wrap around veranda. Built in 1913, this residence is located on the north side of Reed Avenue in St. Andrews.
Macklem House is designated a Local Historic Place for its architectural value, for its association with the architects who designed it and for its association with the St. Andrews Land Company.
Macklem House was built in 1913 and designed by Edward and William Maxwell. The architectural practice of brothers Edward and William Maxwell was among the most important in Canada during the early decades of the 20th century. Their works still hold a place of prominence in Canada and include the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and the Birks store in Montreal, the Saskatchewan Parliament in Regina, and the Palliser Hotel in Calgary. The most vital period of this partnership was from 1902 until 1923 when the two brothers worked together. At its peak, they were the largest and most prominent architectural firm in Canada. It was during this period that the Macklem House was built.
Macklem House is a good example of a hybrid of the Beaux Arts and Shingle styles that became a Maxwell signature. Like many of the Maxwell's Shingle style summer residences, this home was designed with a large wrap around veranda and has the typical long sloping roofs and large eaves. The Maxwell's designed their homes with prominent entrances, decorative shingle cuts, and patterned glass. The firm also used classical elements to ornament their buildings, such as the Corinthian capitals displayed on the Macklem House. As expected in Beaux Arts style homes, this residence was built with classical symmetry throughout the upper and lower storey of the central façade.
This home was built for Toronto lawyer Oliver Richard Macklem. Mr. Macklem obtained the land from the St. Andrews Land Company in 1912. The St. Andrews Land Company is credited with re-shaping the residential and resort environment of the Town of St. Andrews. In 1888, with the days of sail at an end, St. Andrews Land Company was formed. They bought up much of the undeveloped land in St. Andrews and made extensive plans for developing the place for a fashionable summer resort. Many residents were sceptical at first, but as soon the St. Andrews Land Company built the Algonquin Hotel, wealthy men from the eastern seaboard of the USA and from Canadian cities started purchasing land from them. Many of these wealthy residents were influential in improving the infrastructure of the town. Many properties that the land company sold had strict covenants. The covenant in the deed given to Mr. Macklem stated that no building shall be erected on the premises except a dwelling house for private family use and not for purpose of trade or commerce. Set-back regulations restricted him from building within 35 feet of the street and within 10 feet of a bounding property line.
Since 1966, this home has been owned by the Town of St. Andrews and was used as a recreation facility. It is now used as a Tourist Information Centre.
Source: Charlotte County Archives – Old Gaol, St. Andrews, New Brunswick – St. Andrews Historic Places File, “Macklem House”
The character-defining elements of this Beaux Arts/Shingle style summer residence include:
- window placement and proportions;
- most windows with top sash divided into multiple diamond pattern panes;
- rectangular plan with projecting central bay acting as a portico at entrance level;
- sloped roof with modillions under the eaves and a small shed dormer on the central bay;
- roof of central bay projection supported by Corinthian pilasters;
- flat-topped hipped roof with wide eaves;
- three-façade wrap around veranda;
- prominent entrance with paired wooden doors, each having 12-paned windows;
- upper storey in central bay mirrors the proportions of the entrance and flanking side windows and provides a second storey balcony;
- broad pilasters flank the doorway;
- large vertical paired windows with transom flanking the entrance;
- decoratively cut shingle;
- corner boards with Corinthian capitals;
- western entrance consisting of a single wooden door with glass upper panel and sidelights with leaded glass designs.
The character-defining elements that describe the location of the building as it relates to the land and associated covenants include:
- the building must be non-commercial and adhere to a restricted set-back of at least 35 feet from the highway and 10 feet from neighbouring property.
Local Governments (NB)
Heritage Conservation Act
Local Historic Place (municipal)
Theme - Category and Type
- Expressing Intellectual and Cultural Life
- Architecture and Design
Function - Category and Type
- Tourist Facility
- Single Dwelling
Architect / Designer
William and Edward Maxwell
Location of Supporting Documentation
Charlotte County Archives - Old Gaol, Frederick Street, St. Andrews, New Brunswick.
Cross-Reference to Collection