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Town Clock on Citadel Hill

Brunswick Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Formally Recognized: 2004/04/08

View of the front entrance of the Town Clock, 2003.; Agence Parcs Canada - Parks Canada Agency, 2003.
Front elevation
General view of the rear of the Town Clock on Citadel Hill putting and emphasis on the building’s value as a visual monument which recalls Halifax’s 19th Century character, 2003.; Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003.
General view
Interior view of the Town Clock on Citadel Hill showing the clock mechanism, 2003.; Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003.
Interior view

Other Name(s)


Links and documents

Construction Date(s)

1960/01/01 to 1962/01/01

Listed on the Canadian Register: 2006/07/26

Statement of Significance

Description of Historic Place

The Town Clock on Citadel Hill in Halifax is a faithful reconstruction of an early 19th century Palladian structure. Clad in white wood clapboard and shingles, the building consists of a symmetrical rectangular base supporting a three-tiered octagonal tower, and features typical classical elements and details. The tower is composed of a round-plan colonnade, which supports the octagonal clock storey, which in turn supports an octagonal arcaded storey and is crowned by a copper dome and a balustrade and copper ball. The structure still contains the original functional clock mechanism, which has been operating since October 20, 1803. It is set on the grassed eastern glacis of the Halifax Citadel, fronting onto Brunswick Street. The designation is confined to the footprint of the building.

Heritage Value

The Halifax Town Clock is a Classified Federal Heritage Building because of its historical associations, and its architectural and environmental values.

Historical value:
The Halifax Town Clock is associated with the national theme of the pre- Venice Charter heritage conservation movement. A very faithful reconstruction of its predecessor, it reflects the conservation approach of the early 1960s in Canada and stands out as one of Halifax’s most significant conservation projects of the time. The project was one of the early restoration/reconstruction projects in the area and distinguishes itself as a prominent undertaking. Through its great influence and symbolic importance, it served as an example to alert and sensitize the population to the potential loss of historic structures and helped pave the way for later conservation projects in the city.

Architectural value:
As a reconstruction of the original structure, the Halifax Town Clock is a remarkable example of Palladian architecture in Canada. Characterized by a symmetrical and balanced composition, monumental scale and elegant proportions, all classical characteristics, the design offers a good solution to the somewhat ambitious and unusual hybrid program it was meant to accommodate. The original design is credited to Captain Fenwick, a Commander of the Royal Engineers. The reconstruction project, lead by Parks Canadaarchitects, demonstrates very good skilled traditional craftsmanship and quality materials, and reflects an overall attention to detail.

Environmental value:
Through its strong presence and visibility, the tower reinforces the historic character of Brunswick Street and of the green expanse of the eastern glacis, and marks the boundary between the contemporary city and the historic compound of the Citadel. One of the most recognizable buildings associated with Halifax, the Town Clock is regarded as both a symbolic and visual landmark.

Maryann D’Abramo, Halifax Town Clock, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Federal Heritage Building Review Office Report, 02-118; Town Clock, Halifax Citadel, Nova Scotia, Heritage Character Statement 02-118.

Character-Defining Elements

The character-defining elements of the Halifax Town clock should be respected.

Its remarkable Palladian-inspired aesthetics, its functional design as a clock tower, as well as the high quality craftsmanship and materials invested in the building’s reconstruction, as manifested in:
-the building’s symmetrical and well proportioned composition, consisting of a rectangular base storey surmounted by a three-tiered clock tower;
-the clock tower’s circular form, a rare subset of Palladian aesthetics;
-the interior layout which includes a central well for the clock pendulum;
-the finely crafted classical elements and details, such as the applied Doric corner pilasters, the entablature at the perimeter of the base storey, the colonnade of twelve Doric columns surmounted by a simple architrave, as well as the frieze, cornices, 12-over-12 and 6-over-6 sash windows, arched openings embellished with moldings and ornamental keystones;
-the use of copper roofs and white wood clapboard and shingles on the exterior;
-the exterior cobalt blue clock faces and copper-clad hands and numerals constructed of copper plate.

The manner in which the building reinforces the historic character of its setting and marks the boundary between the city and the Citadel, as evidenced in:
-the site line from the waterfront to the clock tower through George and Carmichael Streets, which has endured as a significant viewscape;
-the building’s relationship to its surroundings, as a monument placed on the open grassed area of the Citadel’s east glacis;
-the building’s value as a visual monument which recalls Halifax’s 19th Century character.




Recognition Authority

Government of Canada

Recognition Statute

Treasury Board Heritage Buildings Policy

Recognition Type

Classified Federal Heritage Building

Recognition Date


Historical Information

Significant Date(s)

1803/01/01 to 1803/01/01

Theme - Category and Type

Function - Category and Type



Communications Facility

Architect / Designer

Parks Canada, following an original 1803 design by Captain Fenwick of the Royal Engineers



Additional Information

Location of Supporting Documentation

National Historic Sites Directorate, Documentation Centre, 5th Floor, Room 89, 25 Eddy Street, Gatineau, Quebec

Cross-Reference to Collection

Fed/Prov/Terr Identifier




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