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434 Bar Road, St Andrews, New Brunswick, E5B, Canada

Formally Recognized: 2007/09/04

This photograph shows the primary façade and illustrates the projecting outer bays with two-storey semi-octagonal windows and central bay tower, 2007; Town of St. Andrews
Tillietudlem - Primary Façade
This photograph shows the ocean front façade. It illustrates the gabled projection that serves as a covered veranda, as well as a covered balcony in upper level, 2007; Town of St. Andrews
Tillietudlem - Ocean front façade
This photograph shows the master bedroom balcony and the recessed Gothic arch that serves as a balcony cover.  It also illustrates fancy cut shingling, 2007; Town of St. Andrews
Tillietudlem - Upper Balcony

Other Name(s)

Edward Maxwell Residence
Résidence Edward Maxwell

Links and documents

Construction Date(s)

1899/01/01 to 1908/01/01

Listed on the Canadian Register: 2009/08/19

Statement of Significance

Description of Historic Place

Tillietudlem is a two-storey, wood, Shingle style residence originally built in 1899 and altered by same architect through the following 9 years. It is located on Bar Road in the Town of St. Andrews.

Heritage Value

Tillietudlem is designated a Local Historic Place for its architecture and for being the summer residence of noted Montreal architect Edward Maxwell.

Tillietudlem was the summer home of noted architect Edward Maxwell. The Shingle style was Edward’s signature style, so it is fitting that his own summer residence is a good example of this style of residential architecture. The original 1899 home was a modest rectangular building but was altered many times by Maxwell between 1899 and 1908 when his family grew larger. Two-storey bay windows were added, as well as gables and a covered veranda with French windows opening onto a balcony sheltered by a gable. This was one element of which Edward was very fond and he had used versions of it many times in other works. As is often the case with the Shingle style, Tillietudlem has a wide porch and shingled surfaces with an asymmetrical form of the Queen Anne Revival style. Maxwell opened up the interior space, creating fewer rooms. As these rooms were bigger, it was easier for light to penetrate the interior. Although Tillietudlem has a smaller veranda than many of the buildings Maxwell designed in St. Andrews, many of the other elements of his signature style are displayed. The most interesting addition in the interior was the oval dining room - a detail found in many of his works. Another decorative element was the mural of a sailing ship painted in 1899 above the fireplace. The Maxwell’s used the element of depicting rural scenes in murals repeatedly. It is one of the best examples of the way Edward Maxwell combined the designs and materials published in American design books with his own imagination, liveliness and talent for designing exciting, amusing spaces.

The heritage value of Tillietudlem also lies in its association with Edward Maxwell. The architectural practice of brothers Edward and William Maxwell was among the most important in Canada during the early decades of the 20th century. Their works still hold a place of prominence in Canada and include the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and the Birks store in Montreal, the Saskatchewan Legislative Building in Regina, and the Palliser Hotel in Calgary. At its peak, this architectural firm was the largest and most prominent in Canada. The arrival of Edward Maxwell, both as an architect and a summer resident, demonstrated that St. Andrews was becoming a summer resort for many of Montreal's elite. Edward was introduced to St. Andrews, New Brunswick, by Sir William Van Horne, President of the Canadian Pacific Railway to help with the building of his summer residence on Minister's Island in St. Andrews. Sir William Van Horne recommended the lot of land upon which, Tillitudlem was built, to Maxwell in 1899. It is said that Edward got much of his architectural inspiration from being in nature’s surroundings through such activities as sailing at St. Andrews. Until his death in 1923, Maxwell would move his family to St. Andrews as soon as the weather warmed up. Here, he would work on the plans for houses. The home remained in the Maxwell family until 1985.

Source: Charlotte County Archives – Old Gaol, St. Andrews, New Brunswick – St. Andrews Historic Places File, “Tillietudlem”

Character-Defining Elements

The character-defining elements of this Shingle style residence include:

Primary façade:
- projecting outer bays with stepped gables;
- two-storey semi-octagonal bay windows within the projecting outer bays;
- six casement windows in each bay;
- entrance embedded into central semi-octagonal tower with hexagonal roof and window in the small cross-gable;
- semi-octagonal tower increases in diameter below roof-line;
- French entrance door with bracketed sloping hood.

Ocean Front Façade:
- side gable configuration with gabled projection serving as a covered veranda in lower level and master bedroom with French windows opening onto a balcony in upper level;
- projecting gable supported by large shingled pilasters;
- small cross gables at each end bay with small Gothic gable casement windows.

Side Façade:
- oval wing displaying the architect’s signature eyebrow curved shingling on roof.

- oval dining room;
- “Ship in storm” mural over the fireplace.



New Brunswick

Recognition Authority

Local Governments (NB)

Recognition Statute

Local Historic Places Program

Recognition Type

Municipal Register of Local Historic Places

Recognition Date


Historical Information

Significant Date(s)


Theme - Category and Type

Building Social and Community Life
Social Movements
Expressing Intellectual and Cultural Life
Architecture and Design

Function - Category and Type


Single Dwelling


Architect / Designer

William and Edward Maxwell


Wright McLaren

Additional Information

Location of Supporting Documentation

Charlotte County Archives - Old Gaol, Frederick Street, St. Andrews, New Brunswick

Cross-Reference to Collection

Fed/Prov/Terr Identifier




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