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St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada

23 Joes Point Road, Saint Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada

Formally Recognized: 1962/05/15

General view of St. Andrews Blockhouse, appearing in the background, 1987.; Parks Canada | Parcs Canada, 1987.
General view
Side view of the St. Andrews Blockhouse, showing its tripartite design with squat lower storey, overhanging upper storey, and pyramidal roof, 2003.; Parks Canada | Parcs Canada, B. Townsend, 2003.
Side view
No Image

Other Name(s)

St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada
St. Andrews Blockhouse
Blockhaus de St. Andrews
West Point Blockhouse

Links and documents

Construction Date(s)

1812/01/01 to 1813/01/01

Listed on the Canadian Register: 2007/06/04

Statement of Significance

Description of Historic Place

St. Andrews Blockhouse is a wooden defensive structure located on the west point of the harbour at the extreme edge of the historic town of Saint Andrews, New Brunswick.

Heritage Value

St. Andrews Blockhouse was designated a National Historic Site because it is
- one of the few surviving Canadian examples of a type of military architecture,
- significant for its defensive role during the War of 1812.

The heritage value of St. Andrews Blockhouse lies in its illustration of a specific type of defensive structure, and in its origins during the War of 1812. It was built in 1812-13 by the citizens of Saint Andrews to safeguard against American raiders. During the late 19th century, it became a picturesque tourist attraction in the resort town of Saint Andrews, then was acquired and restored by National Historic Sites (1962-1967). The blockhouse was seriously damaged by fire in 1993, and once again restored to its early appearance.

Source: HSMBC Minutes, May and November 1962, July 1966; Commemorative Integrity Statement.

Character-Defining Elements

Key features contributing to the heritage value of this site include:
- the two-storey, square massing,
- its tripartite design with squat lower storey, overhanging upper storey, and pyramidal roof,
- the symmetrical articulation with a central door and regular window openings,
- defensive design with few door and window openings and many gun slits,
- the structural integrity of the blockhouse which has been maintained over nearly two centuries,
- its wooden construction materials,
- siting on a point of land with unobstructed viewplanes of the sea, the harbour, the town and its hinterland,
- its visibility from the harbour and the waterfront of the historic town of Saint Andrews.




Recognition Authority

Government of Canada

Recognition Statute

Historic Sites and Monuments Act

Recognition Type

National Historic Site of Canada

Recognition Date


Historical Information

Significant Date(s)

1880/01/01 to 1962/01/01
1841/01/01 to 1841/01/01
1962/01/01 to 2004/01/01
1993/01/01 to 1993/01/01

Theme - Category and Type

Governing Canada
Military and Defence

Function - Category and Type



Military Defence Installation

Architect / Designer




Additional Information

Location of Supporting Documentation

Indigenous Affairs and Cultural Heritage Directorate Documentation Centre 3rd Floor, room 366 30 Victoria Street Gatineau, Québec J8X 0B3

Cross-Reference to Collection

Fed/Prov/Terr Identifier




Related Places

General view

St. Andrews Blockhouse

The St. Andrews Blockhouse overlooks the harbour and waterfront of St. Andrews. It is an imposing, square, wooden defensive structure whose second floor overhangs the ground…


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