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St. Andrews Blockhouse

Joe's Point Road, Saint Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada

Formally Recognized: 1999/12/09

Corner view of St. Andrews Blockhouse, showing the squat square profile, pyramidal roof, entrance and the artillery gunports, machicolation loopholes and musketry holes, 1998.; Parks Canada Agency/Agence Parcs Canada, 1998.
General view
General view of the rear and side elevations of the St. Andrews Blockhouse showing the simple, well-proportioned, geometric massing of the squat square profile with a pyramidal roof, 1998.; Parks Canada Agency/ Agence Parcs Canada, 1998.
General View
Panoramic view of the St. Andrews Blockhouse emphasizing its imposing size and specialized military defence design which make it a well-known feature of the national historic site of Canada, 2003.; Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, B. Townsend, 2003.
Panorama

Other Name(s)

n/a

Links and documents

Construction Date(s)

1813/01/01

Listed on the Canadian Register: 2007/06/27

Statement of Significance

Description of Historic Place

The St. Andrews Blockhouse overlooks the harbour and waterfront of St. Andrews. It is an imposing, square, wooden defensive structure whose second floor overhangs the ground floor. Its solidity and other defence features distinguish it. The designation is confined to the footprint of the building.

Heritage Value

The St. Andrews Blockhouse is a Recognized Federal Heritage Building because of its historical associations, and its architectural and environmental values.

Historical Value:
The St. Andrews Blockhouse is associated with the defence of British North America against American privateers and military forces during the War of 1812. It was funded and built by local citizens with militia support, and was the only privately financed fortification of the war. It did not see active service and was used as barracks for the local garrison. It is the only remaining blockhouse in Canada from the War of 1812.

Architectural Value:
The St. Andrews Blockhouse is a good example of a functional 19th-century military defence design. Its defensive details include loopholes and portholes for musketry and small-calibre artillery, and an overhanging second floor. Its open undivided interior permitted the free movement of men and equipment of the defence battery. Intended as a temporary and cost-effective measure, the blockhouse is of solid construction and exhibits good craftsmanship in the execution of its construction and details.

Environmental Value:
The St. Andrews Blockhouse reinforces the character of the military setting and is a familiar landmark and symbol to local people and visitors to the St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada.

Sources: Ian Doull, St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada, Joe’s Point Road, St. Andrews, New Brunswick. Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office Report 98-120; St. Andrews Blockhouse Joe’s Point Road, St. Andrews, New Brunswick. Heritage Character Statement 98-120.

Character-Defining Elements

The character-defining elements of the St. Andrews Blockhouse should be respected.

The functional military defence design and good quality materials and craftsmanship, for example:
- the simple, well-proportioned, geometric massing of the squat square profile with a pyramidal roof;
- the carefully constructed 30.5-centimeter (12-inch) thick, heavy timber walls laid horizontally and dovetailed at the corners with its exterior clad in shingles;
- the single entrance;
- the defence-related elements such as the centrally placed artillery gunports in each of the second storey walls, the machicolation loopholes in the second-storey overhang and the musketry holes cut in the ground-floor walls.

The manner in which the St. Andrews Blockhouse reinforces the military character of St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada and acts as a regional landmark as evidenced by:
- its ongoing visual relationship to the harbour and waterfront within its park-like setting;
- its imposing size and specialized military defence design which make it a well-known feature of the national historic site of Canada.

Recognition

Jurisdiction

Federal

Recognition Authority

Government of Canada

Recognition Statute

Treasury Board Heritage Buildings Policy

Recognition Type

Recognized Federal Heritage Building

Recognition Date

1999/12/09

Historical Information

Significant Date(s)

n/a

Theme - Category and Type

Function - Category and Type

Current

Leisure
Historic or Interpretive Site

Historic

Defence
Military Defence Installation

Architect / Designer

Unknown

Builder

n/a

Additional Information

Location of Supporting Documentation

National Historic Sites Directorate, Documentation Centre, 5th Floor, Room 89, 25 Eddy Street, Gatineau, Quebec

Cross-Reference to Collection

Fed/Prov/Terr Identifier

8762

Status

Published

Related Places

General view

St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada

St. Andrews Blockhouse is a wooden defensive structure located on the west point of the harbour at the extreme edge of the historic town of St. Andrews, New Brunswick.

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