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Charlotte County Gaol

123 Frederick Street, Saint Andrews, New Brunswick, E5B, Canada

Formally Recognized: 2004/01/01

This side elevation includes a metal stairway leading to a door on the second level of the building.; PNB 2004
Side view of the gaol
This rear elevation includes a door and three window openings on the second level.; PNB 2004
Rear view of the gaol
This front elevation includes a door and three window openings on the second level.; PNB 2004
Front façade view of the gaol

Other Name(s)


Links and documents

Construction Date(s)


Listed on the Canadian Register: 2004/08/10

Statement of Significance

Description of Historic Place

The Charlotte County Gaol Provincial Historic Site consists of a two and a half storey split-faced granite building built in 1832 and situated on one of the original public town squares in the Town of St. Andrews.

Heritage Value

The Charlotte County Gaol is one of the province's oldest surviving gaols. Built in 1832 from massive granite blocks shipped by scow from a quarry in Deer Isle, Maine, it speaks to the heavy-handedness of 19th century justice. Found adjacent to the old Charlotte County Court House (1839-40), the functional Georgian style building is an imposing structure that has remained relatively unaltered over time. Source: New Brunswick Culture and Sport Secretariat, Heritage Branch, Site File # 7.

Character-Defining Elements

The imposing setting of the building, at the top of the sloped public square adjacent to the County Court House. The exterior architectural elements including the functional Georgian style characterized by: - simple rectangular massing with unadorned and ordered stonework; - simple squared window openings on the long side with iron security bars; - a low hip roof with small unadorned eave and cornice, and the pair of central chimneys; - a slight asymmetry within the principal façade revealing the functional uses within. The structural elements are represented through: - un-coursed rubble stone foundation comprised of sandstone & shale; - granite lintel above the main entry door, with the carved date "1832" inscribed; - fenestration on the southern office facade, with a pair of 2 over 2 double-hung wood-frame windows on each floor (unlikely to be original windows), including cut granite sills and partial remnants of original shutter hardware; - walls built of split-faced coursed granite ashlars in a running bond, with a continuous stone belt course at the exterior second floor level; - cell wing corridor floors built of 2.46 meters long interlocking tapered granite slabs with a split-faced surface; - floor structure of wood beam and planks in the office/entry section. The interior characteristics throughout the building include: - the interior first floor layout; - with the gaol area comprised of 10 similar-sized stone walled cells on the main floor, with two rows of 5 cells on either side of the central 2.46 meters wide corridor; - the detention area which is connected to a two-room office/entry area occupying one-quarter of the total floor area; - original cell area hinged iron doors and hardware - the ten exterior wall loopholes on the main floor which allow small amounts of ventilation and natural light in each cell; - original cast iron prisoners’ bed frames in cells; - Georgian style painted wood railing and stair connecting the two office floors; - fireplaces and wood mantles supported by a large arched brick and stone structure in the basement; - simple wooden door on the rear façade which once led to an adjoining wood-frame jailer’s quarters including a robust original lockset and hinge hardware; - the second floor layout similar to the first, with the notable exception of the prison wing being a single large secured room rather than individual cells.



New Brunswick

Recognition Authority

Province of New Brunswick

Recognition Statute

Historic Sites Protection Act, s. 2(2)

Recognition Type

Historic Sites Protection Act – Protected

Recognition Date


Historical Information

Significant Date(s)


Theme - Category and Type

Governing Canada
Government and Institutions
Governing Canada
Security and Law

Function - Category and Type




Correctional Facility

Architect / Designer




Additional Information

Location of Supporting Documentation

New Brunswick Culture and Sport Secretariat, Heritage Branch, Site File # 7

Cross-Reference to Collection

Fed/Prov/Terr Identifier




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